Interactive Body Map
At Health City Cayman Islands, we treat each patient with a personalised approach. Our cardiac procedures, orthopaedic procedures, interventional pulmonology, pulmonary procedures and interventional cardiology all focus on you as an individual. While our services all reflect our philosophy of high quality, affordable healthcare for all, we do not subscribe to a healthcare philosophy of one size fits all. Each medical service, performed by a highly qualified medical team, recognizes your unique body and addresses your healthcare need with that in mind.
Our interactive body map will provide you with an overview of our wide range of personalised medical services. Simply click on the body part for which you would like information. You will learn about the many medical procedures Health City Cayman Islands provides to effectively treat various medical conditions affecting that area of the body.
Endocrinology Paediatrics Only
Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease, resulting from the buildup of cholesterol and other material called plaque, on the arteries' inner walls. The narrowing of the coronary arteries limits blood flow to parts of the heart. As the disease progresses, the decreased blood flow can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or heart attack. Evidence-based risk factors for CAD are high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, family history, diabetes, smoking, being post-menopausal for women, and being older than 45 for men.
Valvular Heart Disease
Valvular heart disease occurs when one of the heart's four valves (mitral, aortic, tricuspid or pulmonary) is not working properly. Two primary valvular conditions can lead to damage. Valvular stenosis is when there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, fusion, or blockage to one or more valves of your heart. Valvular insufficiency is when abnormal closure of a heart valve causes blood to leak backward across the valve - which is where the lay term "leaky valve" derives. Mild cases may be asymptomatic, but in more advanced cases, valvular heart disease can lead to congestive heart failure and other complications.
Congenital Heart Disease
Congenital heart disease (congenital heart defect) is the term for an abnormality in the heart's structure, present at birth. A defect results when the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop normally in utero. Congenital heart disease can produce symptoms when an infant is born, during childhood, or not until adulthood. There are many types of congenital heart defects, but the most common one occurs when the muscular wall (septum) separating the bottom chambers of the heart (right and left ventricles) doesn't fully form - in lay terms this is referred to as a hole in the heart.
An aortic aneurysm occurs when a segment of the large blood vessel (the aorta) becomes abnormally large or balloons outward. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is the most common type, but thoracic aortic aneurysms can also occur, affecting the portion of the aorta that passes through the chest. While aneurysms can start small and be asymptomatic, the increasing pressure causes the bulge to expand, weaken, and rupture in some patients. Aneurysms are often found coincidently during an examination or test, and repaired as soon as possible. Ruptured aneurysms are dangerous due to internal bleeding, which leads to serious repercussions, including death in about 80% of all cases.
An arrhythmia is a problem with the rate or rhythm of your heartbeat that causes it to beat too slowly, too quickly, or with an irregular pattern. Arrhythmias can start in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles) or upper chambers (atria).The most common, serious type of arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation (AFib), which causes an irregular and fast heartbeat. Tachycardia is a fast heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute (BPM), with several different types within this classification. Bradycardia is a slow heartbeat of 60 BPM or less, which may not produce any symptoms, but is reason for concern if there is an underlying problem in the heart's electrical system. Premature beat is a generally harmless type of arrhythmia that causes the heart to have extra beats, which may produce the sensation of fluttering in the chest.
Cardiac arrest, also known as sudden cardiac arrest, occurs when the heart suddenly stops beating effectively and circulating blood to the body. It is not the same as heart attack, although it can result from one, because a heart attack impairs the blood flow to the heart. During cardiac arrest, oxygen and glucose is not delivered to the body, and this causes loss of consciousness to the brain, which leads to breathing that is abnormal or stops completely. Cardiac arrest is a medical emergency and often fatal, but if treated early, the damage is potentially reversible.
A heart attack, sometimes called myocardial infarction, happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to part of the heart suddenly becomes blocked and the heart does not get oxygen. The process that causes gradual blockage to coronary arteries that supply blood flow to the heart is called atherosclerosis. Plaque is the buildup of fat, cholesterol and other substances that leads to this process, and this is preventable in some cases through medications and lifestyle modifications. When a person suffers a heart attack, if blood flow is not quickly restored, the affected area of the heart muscle begins to die, and in severe cases, can result in death.
Congestive Heart Failure
Congestive heart failure is a term used when the pumping action of the heart becomes increasingly less powerful and effective over a period of time. When this happens, blood does not move efficiently through the circulatory system and starts to back up, increasing pressure and causing fluid to leak from the capillary blood vessels. It is caused by conditions that damage the heart muscle including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, high blood pressure, valve disease, thyroid disease, kidney disease, diabetes, or congenital heart defects present at birth.
Rotator Cuff Tear Injury
The rotator cuff is a group of tendons that connect the four muscles of the upper shoulder to the bones. While the normal process of aging can create wear and tear on the rotator cuff, individuals who participate in sports like golf and tennis have an increased risk of injury. Symptoms may include shoulder pain and tenderness, especially when reaching overhead or behind the back, shoulder weakness, and reduced range of motion. Nonsurgical treatment includes painkillers and anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, and cortisone injections. Surgery may be required if the tear is associated with an acute injury and / or conservative treatment methods fail to alleviate pain and weakness.
Rotator Cuff Arthropathy
In a healthy shoulder, the rotator cuff helps the large deltoid muscle elevate your arm. When a person has both an arthritic shoulder joint and an irreparable massive tear of the rotator cuff, it is known as rotator cuff arthropathy, also referred to as pseudo-paralysis of the shoulder. Symptoms may include significant loss of function in the affected shoulder and the inability to lift the arm even to shoulder height. By reversing the implant position of the replacement ball and socket, reverse shoulder arthroplasty can help restore overhead motion of the arm, alleviate pain, and restore overall functioning of the shoulder joint.
The shoulder joint is stabilised by the soft-tissue cartilage rim around the joint (labrum), capsule, tendons, ligaments, and surrounding muscles. When the labrum and / or ligaments stretch or tear, this causes instability, making the shoulder prone to dislocation. Symptoms may include a visibly deformed or out-of-place shoulder, swelling or bruising, intense pain, loss of joint movement, and numbness, weakness, or tingling that radiates down the arm. Dislocations can either be associated with traumatic injury such as being tackled in a rugby game, or non-traumatic, such as reaching up on a shelf to retrieve something. A third classification is positional dislocation, which is related to abnormal muscle patterning, in which the strong muscles around the shoulder joint are not functioning correctly, causing the shoulder to dislocate frequently and usually painlessly.
Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Separation
An acromioclavicular (AC) joint separation, often called a shoulder separation, causes the collar bone (clavicle) to separate from the shoulder blade (scapula). This injury is often caused by a blow to the shoulder, or a fall in which the individual lands directly on the shoulder or an outstretched arm. Symptoms include pain and instability in the entire shoulder and arm, with the pain most severe when the person sleeps on the affected side or tries to reach overhead. AC separations are classified by grade, related to the supporting structures which are impacted and the extent of damage. Grade 1 is the most common and mild, and is accompanied by a sprain of the AC ligament that does not move the clavicle. Grade 3 is a severe shoulder separation that completely tears both the AC and coracoclavicular ligaments, causing the shoulder joint to noticeably move out of position, and Grades 4 to 6 are extremely rare.
As with any joint in the body, osteoarthritis can affect the shoulder. It is a chronic condition in which cartilage (the material that cushions the joints) breaks down. Symptoms specific to shoulder OA include sore or stiff shoulders after inactivity or overuse; stiffness after resting that goes away after moving; pain that is worse after activity or toward the end of the day, and limited range of motion. Common risk factors include increasing age, obesity, previous shoulder injury, overuse of the shoulder, and genetics. When nonsurgical treatment options are ineffective, there are a number of arthroplasty procedures that can be used, including total shoulder and hemi-replacement. Other types of arthritis that affect the shoulder are rheumatoid, post-traumatic, rotator cuff tear arthropathy, and avascular necrosis.
Subacromial Impingement Syndrome
Impingement is caused by excessive rubbing of the rotator cuff muscles against the top part of the shoulder blade, called the acromion. Subacromial impingement syndrome is the most common shoulder disorder, accounting for an estimated 44 to 65% of all shoulder pain diagnoses made during physician visits. Impingement problems can result from activities that require excessive overhead arm motion, such as swimming and tennis. The resulting inflammation and irritation to the subacromial space can cause pain, weakness, and loss of shoulder movement.
As with any joint in the body, osteoarthritis (OA) can affect the elbow, although not as commonly as other joints like the hip and knee. OA associated with the wear and tear of aging can cause the cartilage that cushions the bones of the elbow to soften and erode. The bones rub against one another and over a period of time, this causes the joint to become stiff and painful. In addition to OA, patients can experience chronic elbow pain due to end-stage rheumatoid arthritis or post-traumatic arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that can affect people of all ages, while post-traumatic arthritis occurs as a result of a serious elbow injury, such as fractures to any of the bones in the elbow, or tears to the surrounding tendons or ligaments.
Radial Elbow Head Fractures
Radial elbow head fractures are common injuries, accounting for 20% of all acute elbow injuries. Elbow fractures are classified by the degree of displacement (how far out of normal position the bones are) with treatment determined by the severity of the fracture. In most cases, Type 1 and 2 fractures can be treated through splinting or the use of a sling for a few days, followed by an early and gradual increase in elbow and wrist movement exercises. However, type 2 injuries sometimes warrant surgical removal of small fragments of broken bone to enable normal movement and prevent long-term problems. Type 3 fractures involve significant damage to the elbow joint and the ligaments that surround the elbow, so surgery is always necessitated.
Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability in the knee joint. Other types of arthritis that affect the knee are rheumatoid and post-traumatic. OA is a chronic condition in which cartilage (the material that cushions the joints) breaks down, and it can lead to serious impairment. Pain and stiffness generally progress over a period of time, so in the early stages, you may experience low-grade aching and stiffness that is periodic. Symptoms of OA can include joint pain with activity, night pain, morning stiffness, limited motion, joint inflammation, a noise from the knee, and in severe cases - deformity. The pain may be more pronounced when you put weight on it, climb stairs, bend, kneel, squat, walk, or participate in sports.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), one of two ligaments inside the knee joint (the other is the PCL), prevents the shinbone (tibia) from sliding too far forward underneath the thigh bone (femur). It also helps prevent over-straightening and over-rotation of the femur on the tibia. Sports like basketball, skiing, and American football cause many ACL injuries because players tend to plant their feet with a bent knee and then quickly change direction, leading to abnormal rotation. The RICE method is the first line of treatment for an ACL injury: Rest the knee by using crutches and keeping weight off of it; ice the knee; compress the knee with a wrap; and elevate the leg. Standard conservative treatment includes rehabilitation and bracing, but if these methods prove ineffective, surgery may be considered.
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Injuries
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of two ligaments inside the knee joint (the other is the ACL), prevents the tibia from sliding too far forward underneath the femur. PCL injuries are not as common as ACL injuries and are often overlooked. A simple misstep can cause this injury, but more typically, these tears occur in car accidents or while playing sports. Pulling or stretching the ligament can lead to hyperextension, which can also damage the PCL. The RICE method is the first line of treatment for a PCL injury: Rest the knee by using crutches and keeping weight off of it; ice the knee; compress the knee with a wrap; and elevate the leg. Surgery is rarely considered unless there are multiple injuries, for example, you have dislocated your knee and torn multiple ligaments including the PCL.
The knee has two menisci which help cushion your knee - the medial and lateral menisci, which are two large concave-shaped pads of cartilage located between the thigh bone (femur) and shinbone (tibia). A torn meniscus is commonly related to sports in which there is forceful twisting or hyper-flexing of the knee joint, often when the foot is planted. Tears can be mild, moderate, or severe - mild tears cause slight pain and swelling that usually resolves after 2 to 3 weeks. Moderate symptoms include pain at the side or center of your knee and swelling that gets worse after a few days. In severe tears, pieces of the torn meniscus may encroach into the joint space, causing the knee to catch, pop, lock, or feel unsteady without warning. The RICE method is the first line of treatment for meniscus tears: Rest the knee by using crutches and keeping weight off of it; ice the knee; compress the knee with a wrap; and elevate the leg.
The patellar tendon, which is essential for walking, is a very strong tendon that connects the bottom of the kneecap (patella) to the top of the shinbone (tibia). Patellar tendon tears more commonly affect middle-aged adults who play running or jumping sports. The patellar tendon often tears where it attaches to the kneecap, and a small piece of bone can break as it tears. In complete tears, the tendon separates from the kneecap. Surgical repair is almost always recommended for these tears, because without an intact patellar tendon, you will not be able to walk without your leg frequently collapsing.
Arthrofibrosis is a serious, inflammatory condition that can result from surgical complications or initial injury to the knee joint. Infections and / or bleeding into the area can cause extensive scar tissue to form inside the knee. Symptoms can include stiffness, loss of range of motion, pain, limping, a heat sensation, swelling, joint noises, and / or weakness in the knee. The probability of developing arthrofibrosis increases with the severity of the knee joint injury or condition, the extent of the related surgery, and the length of time that the knee is immobilized. Surgical treatment may be considered after the patient has recovered from the initial injury or operation and completed rehabilitation.
Anterior or Anterolateral Ankle Impingement
Often called "athlete's ankle" or "footballer's ankle," anterior or anterolateral ankle impingement occurs when bone and/or soft tissue of the front of the ankle joint becomes inflamed due to repetitive stress or irritation. This causes pain, swelling, and can limit motion of the ankle, especially dorsiflexion (the inability to bend your "toes towards your nose"), so walking uphill or climbing upstairs can be painful. If non-surgical treatment options do not alleviate symptoms, ankle arthroscopy can be used to debride unnecessary soft tissues and/or bone spurs.
Posterior Ankle Impingement (Os Trigonum Syndrome)
Often affecting ballet dancers and gymnasts, this condition occurs when the bone and/or soft tissue on the back of the ankle becomes inflamed due to repetitive stress, i.e., standing on pointed toes. This causes pain, swelling, and can limit motion of the ankle, especially plantarflexion (loss of the ability to "press on the gas"). If non-surgical treatment options do not alleviate symptoms, ankle arthroscopy can be used to debride unnecessary soft tissues and/or bone spurs, as well as remove the os trigonum, which is a common "accessory" bone in the foot - meaning it is not required for functional uses.
Achilles Tendon Tear/Rupture
The Achilles tendon, the largest tendon in the human body is a ropelike band of fibrous tissue in the back of the ankle, connecting the calf muscles to the heel bone. Age, lack of use, tendinitis, arthritis, diabetes, and medications such as corticosteroids and some antibiotics can cause the tendon to grow weak and thin. When it weakens, it becomes prone to injury or rupture, which most commonly affects middle-aged men who engage in recreational sports. The well-known rule, known by the acronym RICE, is the first line of treatment for Achilles tendon tears: Rest the ankle by using crutches and keeping weight off of it; ice the ankle; compress the ankle with a wrap; and elevate the foot. Surgery may be considered, especially in athletes who need to stay active, and can be done via an open or minimally invasive technique.
A hip fracture is a break in the upper quarter of the thigh bone (femur). Hip fractures most often occur from a fall or from a direct blow to the side of the hip. The risk of hip fracture increases with age, primarily because many older people are frail and more vulnerable to falls. In addition, some medical conditions such as osteoporosis, cancer, or stress injuries can weaken the hip and make people more susceptible to incurring a fracture. Hip fractures are treated with a combination of surgery, rehabilitation, and bisphosphonates, a medication that may help reduce the risk of suffering a second hip fracture.
The hip is a major weight-bearing joint in the human body, and therefore very vulnerable to the degenerative changes of aging that can lead to osteoarthritis (OA). This is a chronic condition in which cartilage (the material that cushions the joints) breaks down. The hip is the second most commonly affected large joint in the body after the knee. Symptoms specific to hip OA tend to get worse when putting weight on the joint, including walking, standing, or making twisting motions. Hip replacement surgery is considered the most effective intervention for severe OA of the hip joint, reducing pain and disability and restoring near normal function to many patients.
Avascular necrosis (also called osteonecrosis) is a serious condition that occurs when the blood supply to the bone is disrupted due to abnormal circulation, which can ultimately lead to destruction of the hip joint and arthritis. Often asymptomatic in early stages, it can affect any joint, but is most common in the hip and frequently affects both sides. Avascular necrosis can result from a hip injury, drug side effects, disease, or excessive alcohol consumption. The surgical management of avascular necrosis is divided into joint-preserving procedures and joint replacement (arthroplasty). The primary goal of joint preservation surgery is to improve blood supply to the affected bone, which may delay the need for total joint replacement.
Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI)
Femoroacetabular refers to the area in the hip where the round head of the femur (thigh bone) comes in contact with the hip socket (acetabulum). When there is impingement, abnormal rubbing between the ball and socket of the hip causes friction, pain, and potential damage to the joint. Cam-type impingement occurs when the round head of the femur is more of a pistol-grip shape than round on the side in which it fits into the socket. Pincer-type impingement occurs when extra bone extends out over the normal rim of the socket, resulting in the labral cartilage being pinched between the rim of the socket and the anterior femoral head-neck junction. If nonsurgical treatment is ineffective for FIA, arthroscopy can be used to trim excessive bone, or repair damage to the labrum and articular cartilage.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a serious lung condition that includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It takes several years for COPD to develop, so symptoms most often start in people between the ages of 40 and 50. Although not all people who develop COPD are smokers, tobacco is the leading risk factor for developing the disease and accounts for nine out of 10 COPD-related deaths. In addition to firsthand and secondhand tobacco smoke, there are environmental risk factors that can contribute to COPD such as air pollution, chemicals, and dust.
Malignant mesothelioma, also known as mesothelioma cancer, is a disease related specifically to asbestos exposure. Most cases are caused by work-related exposure, so there is a greater incidence among construction workers, shipyard workers, and coal miners, among others. It can take 20 to 50 years after exposure for obvious symptoms to manifest and for an oncologist to make a definitive diagnosis. Symptoms mimic other common respiratory ailments, which adds to the difficulty of making a proper diagnosis. There is currently no known cure for mesothelioma, but treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and experimental high-dose radiation and surgery have been shown to help patients and extend lives past the typical mesothelioma prognosis of just one year.
Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid that collects in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. Pulmonary edema is a common complication of heart disorders, and the majority of cases are related to heart failure. Other causes include pneumonia, exposure to specific toxins and medications, trauma to the chest wall, and exercising or living at high altitudes. Sudden or acute pulmonary edema is considered a medical emergency and can be fatal, but the outlook improves when patients receive prompt treatment for the condition and any underlying health problems.
Type 1 and 2 Diabetes
Diabetes type 1 (formerly called juvenile diabetes) is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. This type of diabetes affects children more frequently and is insulin-dependent, so injections must be given daily in order to control blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is different in that the pancreas may produce normal insulin levels, but cells become resistant to it and the body does not process it correctly. More than 80 percent of all children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and about 40 percent are clinically obese. Proper medical treatment and a self-care program that incorporates exercise, glucose monitoring, and nutrition can help normalize blood sugar levels, so serious complications may be prevented.
The two most common thyroid disorders in children are hyperthyroidism, which occurs when an overactive thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone (TH); and hypothyroidism, which results from an underactive thyroid producing too little TH. Autoimmune diseases are a common underlying cause of both of these disorders. Graves' disease, believed to be tied to both genetic and environmental factors, is responsible for many cases of overactive thyroid. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which causes the body to produce antibodies that attack and destroy the thyroid gland, is a common cause of an underactive thyroid in many children and adolescents.
Obesity / Metabolic Syndrome
Rates of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980, with 42 million children younger than age 5 overweight or obese in 2013. As many as 9.5 % of children ages 8 to 11 already have metabolic syndrome. That means they have at least three of the following risk factors: abnormally large waist size, high blood-sugar levels, low levels of HDL cholesterol, high blood fat levels, and high blood pressure. Without treatment, these children may develop type 2 diabetes or heart disease within 10 years or less of initial diagnosis. This can be reversed, but parents need to make a solid and continual commitment to encourage their children to eat less saturated fats and exercise more - with the goal of attaining a healthy weight.
Adrenal disorders (Adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome)
Two conditions related to the adrenal glands in children are Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome. Addison's disease is tied to insufficient production of cortisol (one type of corticosteroid) and is more common in children than Cushing's syndrome, which is related to an overproduction of corticosteroids. If left untreated, Addison's disease may lead to severe abdominal pain, extreme weakness, low blood pressure, kidney failure, and shock, especially when a child is under stress. An overproduction of ACTH, the pituitary hormone that controls the adrenal gland and stimulates the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroids, is one possible cause of Cushing's syndrome, but in rare cases, adrenal gland tumors may be the underlying cause. The primary side effects in children and adolescents are weight gain, growth retardation, and high blood pressure. Treatment of both of these disorders is based on the child's overall health, medical history, extent of the disease, and tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies.
Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related death in men and women worldwide, but it is also highly preventable. Cigarette smoking is the primary risk factor for developing lung cancer, with about 90% of cases arising from tobacco use, however, secondhand smoke is also a risk factor. The two types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers, and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is far less common. Within the NSCLC classification are adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Compared to NSCLC, there is a stronger connection in cases of SCLC to tobacco smoke, the tumors grow more rapidly, and metastases occur earlier.
In early stages of colorectal cancer, cells in the large intestine or rectum begin to divide independently of the normal checks and balances that control growth. As these abnormal cells grow and divide, they can lead to growths within the colon called polyps. Polyps are precancerous, but when they grow into the wall of the intestines or rectum and invade other layers of the large intestine, they become cancerous. In most cases, this process is slow, taking at least 8 to 10 years to develop from early abnormal cells to malignancies. The risk of getting colorectal cancer increases with age, with more than 90% of cases in people who are age 50 and older. Compliance to screening colonoscopy guidelines plays an important role in colorectal cancer prevention, as well as improved prognosis for cancers detected early.
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the breast, but the cancer can metastasize to other areas of the body. While this is predominately a female disease, men can also develop breast cancer - however, the risk in men is one in 1,000 versus one in eight in women. More than 80% of all female breast cancers occur in women age 50 or older, and about 75% of these are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), which means they grow in response to the sex hormone estrogen. Research has tied BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations to an estimated 20 to 25% of hereditary breast cancers, and about 5 to 10% of all breast cancers. Although there isn't conclusive proof, ongoing studies have indicated that leading a healthy lifestyle can decrease the risk of developing certain types of cancer including breast cancer.
The prostate gland surrounds part of the urethra, the tube from which urine and sperm are transported from the male's body. Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor that usually begins in the outer part of the prostate, and in early stages, is nearly always asymptomatic. In most men, the cancer grows very slowly, and many are unaware that they have the disease. Early prostate cancer is confined to the prostate gland itself, and the majority of patients with this type of cancer can live for years without issues. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among American men, with about 180,000 cases diagnosed annually - and worldwide, about 1.1 million men are diagnosed every year, which equals about 15% of all cancers in males.