Compassionate Treatment for a Wide Array of Metabolic and Hormonal Disorders

Our pediatric endocrinology team can help you and your child overcome the challenges associated with both common and rare pediatric metabolic and hormonal disorders. Our goal is to ensure that your child experiences the joys of childhood, as symptom-free as possible. Special consideration should be given to the needs of children diagnosed with diabetes, whether type 1 or 2. We help youth battling obesity so that diabetes type 2 and other serious health problems can be prevented. From diabetes and obesity to thyroid conditions and polycystic ovarian syndrome, we are dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of metabolic and hormonal disorders that affect children and adolescents.

Metabolic and Hormonal Disorders

Diabetes Type 1 and 2 (mellitus)
Diabetes type 1 (formerly called juvenile diabetes) is one of the most common chronic conditions in children characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from the pancreas not producing enough insulin. This type of diabetes affects children more frequently and is insulin-dependent, so insulin injections must be given daily in order to control blood glucose levels. The insulin can be given with syringes, pens or as a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion using insulin pumps.  We offer multidisciplinary care for optimal management of children with Type 1 diabetes. 

Type 2 diabetes is different in that the pancreas ay produce normal insulin levels, but cells become resistant to it and the body does not process it correctly. More than 80% of all children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and about 40% are clinically obese.

Proper medical treatment and a self-care program that incorporates exercise, glucose monitoring, and nutrition can help normalize blood sugar levels, so serious complications may be prevented. Hypoglycaemia is a clinical syndrome that results from low blood sugar and usually occurs in people being treated for diabetes. Individuals with pre-diabetes who have insulin resistance can also have low blood sugar periodically if their high circulating insulin levels are further challenged by a prolonged period of fasting. The acute management of hypoglycaemia involves the rapid delivery of a source of easily absorbed sugar.

Obesity/ Metabolic Syndrome
Rates of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980, with 42 million children younger than age 5 were overweight or obese in 2013. As many as 9.5 % of children ages 8 to 11 already have metabolic syndrome. That means they have at least three of the following risk factors: abnormally large waist size, high blood-sugar levels, low levels of HDL cholesterol, high blood fat levels, and high blood pressure.

Without treatment, these children may develop type 2 diabetes or heart disease within 10 years or less of initial diagnosis. This can be reversed, but parents need to make a solid and continual commitment to encourage their children to eat less saturated fats and exercise more – with the goal of attaining a healthy weight.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
This is one of the most common hormonal endocrine disorders in females, affecting an estimated 5 to 10% of all females who are menstruating. There are many PCOS symptoms which vary greatly from person to person, which makes diagnosis a challenge.

Some of the more common signs are infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods, excessive hair growth, acne, and obesity. Early diagnosis of PCOS is important because the disorder increases the risk of developing insulin resistant type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and heart disease. Medications may be prescribed to regulate menstrual periods and reduce excessive hair growth.

Rickets and Disorders of Calcium / Phosphorus Metabolism
Abnormalities of calcium, and phosphorus are common, and along with magnesium, are collectively known as disorders of mineral metabolism. Rickets is a childhood bone disorder in which bones soften and become vulnerable to fractures and deformity.

The primary cause of rickets is a lack of vitamin D, but inadequate calcium intake can also cause this disorder. Providing a child with extra vitamin D and some minerals usually resolves the problem.

Thyroid Disorders
The two most common thyroid disorders in children are hypothyroidism, which results from an underactive thyroid producing too little TH and hyperthyroidism, which occurs when an overactive thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone (TH).  Hypothyroidism can be congenital or acquired.  Auto immune thyroiditis or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause for acquired hypothyroidism where antibodies attack and destroy the thyroid gland. Once diagnosed, children are prescribed medications that balance the production of TH, and thereafter are regularly monitored through blood tests that check these levels.  The most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children is Grave’s disease which is an autoimmune disease.
Diabetes Insipidus
This is an uncommon disorder that is completely unrelated to diabetes type 1 and 2 (mellitus). Both genetic and non-genetic causes are known. In most cases, referred to as central diabetes insipidus, the body has an inability to properly produce, store, or release the key anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). A less common form, known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, occurs when the kidneys are unable to respond properly to ADH.

The disease is characterized by intense thirst, despite drinking fluids (polydipsia), and the excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria). Treatment for the central type is a synthetic hormone called desmopressin, which is available in a nasal spray, oral tablets, or by injection. A low-salt diet may be recommended for the nephrogenic type, and sometimes medication.

Have us contact you today.
Fill out my online form.

Please call us at 1 (345) 640-4040, or fill out our simple contact form to find out more about the pediatric endocrinology services we offer for a wide spectrum of conditions and disorders.